ALLEN GLACIER AND OTHER ICE TONGUES 441
Allen does not show the glacier on his 1885 map upon which he named Baird Canyon, but says in the text,1 that on April 4,1885, "the camp at Baird's Canyon was at the foot of a vegetation-covered glacier which extended along the river for 6 or 7 miles. A short distance above the canyon the width of the river is two miles, with two small streams emptying into it on the east side. This widened part or lake extends about 6 miles."
In August, 1891, Hayes made the sketch map showing Allen Glacier, with "wooded moraine" on the terminus and the "shallow" lake above with "mud flats" ; but he does not mention it in the text.
In October, 1898, Abercrombie speaks of the Copper River winding " around the glacial obstruction" of the "larger unnamed glacier," below which is Miles Glacier "likewise covered" with moraine and vegetation.2 Guide Rafferty8 in July, 1898, says "At the upper end of Baird's Canyon is a good-sized terminal moraine, back of which I supposed was a "dying" glacier. Baird's Canyon was found to be a very smooth piece of water, the river narrowing down from the wide bay to a few hundred feet in width."
Witherspoon's map, made in October, 1900 * (PL CLXXIX) shows Allen Glacier much as now except that the eastern, moraine-covered portion of the bulb is not shown as part of the glacier but as a 600 foot hill between two forks of the glacier, which is made to bifurcate where it emerges from its mountain valley. This is surely not a change in condition but an error in observation, due to failure to recognize an alder-bearing, moraine-covered glacier.
In summary of the observations from 1885 to 1900, there seems to be no essential change; nor had there been any up to the time when the railway surveys of 1908 and 1909 discovered ice all along their 5£ miles of railway grade on the glacier. The bulb of Allen Glacier seems, therefore, to have been stagnant, moraine-veneered, and vegetation-covered throughout the period of visits by white men.
Our own studies of Allen Glacier were made by both of the authors for half a day in August, 1909,B and by the junior author8 between August 24 and 27, 1910, when the contour map of Allen Glacier was made (Map 9). We also saw Allen Glacier in passing on July 4,1911.
Valley Glacier. Allen Glacier flows from snowfields (PI. CLXX) in the portion of the Chugach Mountains west of the Copper River and north of Mt. Williams 7 and other peaks at least 6000 to 7000 feet high. Within its mountain valley the glacier is a clean, moderately-crevassed ice tongue with a grade of 500 feet to the mile. On the northern side is a small lateral moraine and there is a much larger one extended along the southern
i Allen, H. T., Expedition to the Copper, Xanana, and Koyukuk Rivers, Washington, 1887, pp. 43-44; Narratives of Explorations in Alaska, Washington, 1900, pp. 425-6.
' Abercrombie, W. R., Reports of Explorations in the Territory of Alaska, 1898, War Dept., Adj.-Gen. Office, No. XXV, Washington, 1899, p. 320; also in Narratives of Explorations in Alaska, Washington, 1900.
• Rafferty, J. J., Same, p. 449.
«House Doc. 546,56th Congress, 2nd Session 1910, Fl. I; also Bull. 374, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1909, Fl. I.
• Tarr. R. S. and Martin, Lawrence, Nat. Geog. Mag.. Vol. XXI, 1910, pp. 14,26, 27-28.
• Martin, Lawrence, The National Geographic Society Researches in Alaska, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. XXII,
1911, p. 541; Mastering the Alaskan Glacier Barriers, Scientific American Supplement, Vol. LXXI, 1911, pp. 305-307; Gletscheruntersuchungen langs der Ktlste von Alaska, Fetermanns Geog. Mitteilungen, Jahrgang
1912, Augustheft, p. 79, Tafeln 9 and 11; Un Chemin de For sur Glacier dans 1'Alaska, La Nature, Vol. 41,
1913, pp. 404-407.
' Named in 1910 for Mr. Alfred Williams, assistant engineer of the Copper River and Northwestern Railway.